Содержание: Том 21 (1) 2022 (отпечатан 31 May 2022)

Golenishchev F.N., Malikov V.G., Bannikova A.A., Zykov A.E., Yiğit N., Çolak E.

P. 1-12

The genus Chionomys includes two supraspecific groups: “nivalis” and “gud-roberti”. For a long time, it has been thought that the nivalis group includes only C. nivalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analysis of nine specimens from Turkey, Armenia, and Iran was performed using the Cytb gene and two nuclear genes: BRCA1 and GHR. In the results on Cytb, two specimens from central Taurus Mountains (Turkey), morphologically similar to C. nivalis, stood apart from all studied C. nivalis geographic forms at the species level (9–12%). Meanwhile, 38 km southwest from our collection site, there is known C. nivalis of the Caucasian–Asia Minor molecular-genetic clade. Hence, the form from central Taurus and common Asia Minor C. nivalis seem sympatric. Therefore, they are most likely genetically isolated from each other as separate species. A morphometric comparison of the Taurus specimens and C. nivalis from the eastern part of the geographic range was carried out by principal component analysis of 12 craniometric characteristics. In some craniometric characteristics, the type specimens of the new species are clearly larger than all subspecies of C. nivalis from the eastern part of the range, except C. n. layi. That is why we consider those two central-Taurus specimens a holotype and paratype of a new cryptic species: C. stekolnikovi sp. nov. In addition to the morphological diagnosis, we used data on amino acid substitutions in Cytb and nucleotide substitutions in BRCA1 and GHR.

Yakimova A.A., Tesakov A.S., Pogodina N.V.

P. 13-23

Propliomys jalpugensis, a fossil rhizodont vole (late Early Pliocene, late Ruscinian, MN15), is revised based on materials from the type locality Kotlovina (southwestern Ukraine). This form is interpreted as a phyletic stage, marked by dental complication of first lower molar and hypsodonty, intermediate between the preceding late Early Pliocene Propliomys kowalskii and P. destinatus, and successive Late Pliocene Propliomys ucrainicus. Molar enamel of P. jalpugensis shows a pattern with the radial enamel in leading edges, occasionally with the incipient lamellar enamel, and the inner radial and outer primitive tangental enamel in trailing and closing edges.

Orekhova N.A., Davydova Y.A., Smirnov G.Y.

P. 24-37

Among representatives of the subfamily Microtinae (=Arvicolinae) — Myodes glareolus, Myodes rutilus and Craseomys rufocanus — an interspecies comparison was performed on haematological parameters characterising respiratory capacity of the blood, components of (non)specific immune defence and components of cellular haemostasis. C. rufocanus differs most strongly from the other two species by demonstrating higher counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets in peripheral blood and an increased number of “smaller” erythrocytes with high density of haemoglobin within the cell. The results are discussed in conjunction with the information available in the literature on basal metabolic rate of the species, their sociability and eurybionism, features of thermoregulation and phylogenetic relationships. The authors come to the conclusion that correct interspecific comparisons are possible only within the same reproductive-age groups (either immature under-yearlings or breeding voles that overwintered).

Kikuchi H., Izumiyama S., Oshida T.

P. 38-44

Communal nesting is suggested to assist with thermoregulation in tree squirrels and flying squirrels in temperate and subarctic zones during winter. We tested the thermoregulation hypothesis as an explanation for the ecological function of communal nesting in Japanese flying squirrels (Pteromys momonga). We observed their nesting behavior using video camera traps. Pteromys momonga is endemic to Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, Japan. The study was conducted from December 1, 2017 to November 30, 2019 in the northern part of the Kiso Mountains, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. During the snowy season, the number of flying squirrels nesting in a cavity varies daily. The fluctuation in the daily maximum number of individuals nesting communally did not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that communal nesting may not always be related to thermoregulation.

Bublichenko A.G.

P. 45-52

The features of the historical formation of modern natural landscapes in the city area of Saint Petersburg are described. The role of protected areas of the city as an “ecological framework” for the preservation and maintenance of the urban environment and the specific problems of urban nature protected areas (PAs) are considered. The data on the location, area, and species diversity of mammals in each of the existing nature protected areas of Saint Petersburg are presented. The reasons for the differences in the faunas of the protected areas of the northern and southern coasts of the Gulf of Finland due to their landscape and geographical characteristics and the current state of habitats are revealed. Based on the above data, it is concluded that the increased anthropogenic load in some protected areas leads to the reduction or disappearance of mammal groups such as ungulates or large carnivores. However, in other areas, the composition of fauna remains close to the natural, and the number of observed mammal species is up to 80% of the region’s inhabitants.

Koshev Y.S., Nedyalkov N.P., Raykov I.A.

P. 53-62

We report the changes in the distribution of three alien mammal species in Bulgaria, the coypu Myocastor coypus, the muskrat Ondatra zibethicus, and the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides after their entry into Bulgaria in the fifties and sixties of the last century. The data has been summarised from field surveys, reviews from scientific literature, analyses from official databases of national institutions and organizations, databases compiled from volunteers and hobbyists, etc. After its introduction in 1953, M. coypus rapidly spread in Bulgaria and there are more than 417 records of the species. Today it is the most widespread invasive mammal in the country. O. zibethicus was introduced in 1956, and is known from only 22 records. However, this species was able to cross the physicogeographic barrier of the Balkan Mountains in 2007, which is a strong evidence for its invasive capabilities in the territory. The first observations of N. procyonoides were reported in 1968. There are currently 75 records of the species coming from almost the entire territory of Bulgaria. The majority of the records (77.4%) are between sea level and 199 m a.s.l. and 56% of them are in national protected areas. The most frequently observed negative impacts are described and recommendations are made for further study and reducing the populations of the invasive mammals.

Oleynikov A.Yu., Yudin V.G., Salkina G.P., Sedash G.A.

P. 63-69

We introduce data on the past and current status of yellow-throated marten Martes (Charronia) flavigula in Russia. We examine distribution and abundance of the species based on camera trap data from protected areas of the Russian Far East. Over the past 40 years, the number of yellow-throated marten decreased two-fold, from 3000 to 1500 individuals, and the geographic range decreased by a quarter. Reduction and fragmentation of the species’ habitat was most noticeable in the Amur River region, while in the southern Primorsky Krai the population status is favourable. The yellow-throated marten has disappeared in three of 11 protected natural areas in the south of the Russian Far East. The relative abundance index according to a study using camera traps for the yellow-throated marten ranged from 0.14 to 0.25, and the average group size was 1.4 individuals. Population harvest and other potential threats are discussed, recommendations for species conservation in Russia are provided.

Petrov T.A., Maximova D.A., Sonin P.L., Sedash G.A.

P. 70-74

In the Land of the Leopard National Park, we have recorded the presence of several long-tailed gorals using camera traps over the years. The photos we obtained indicate the existence of a grouping of these animals in southwest Primorskiy Territory. Specific research is needed in areas of potential habitat for this species. We give a brief historical description of the goral’s presence in the area.

Afanasiev R.G., Vinogradov V.V.

P. 75-81

The paper encompasses the spatial distribution, size (head count) and sex-age structure of the herd of Siberian ibex in the central part of the West Sayan from 2014 to 2020. There, the studied animals are grouped into 3 isolated loci. The paper presents the results of the ibex sighting on the left-bank group of Siberian ibex populating the grounds of Sayano-Shushensky Biosphere Nature Reserve.

Kryazheva I.V., Ponomarev D.V., van Kolfschoten T., van der Plicht J.

P. 82-93

In this paper we present the results of the study of rodent faunas from five cave localities in the Chernyshev Ridge located along the Usa and Sharyu Rivers, dated to the Early Holocene, the Late Holocene and “historical” (subrecent) time intervals. The changes in the fauna are correlated with regional alterations in climate and related shifts in the vegetation. Early Holocene faunas consist mainly of forest and intrazonal species; however, there is still a significant portion (10–13%) of tundra species. Late Holocene assemblages are also dominated by forest and intrazonal species but tundra species are less abundant (2.5%). The most recent rodent fauna of the taiga zone in the Chernyshev Ridge area, dated to the last decades, as well as the modern regional fauna, lacks tundra species and consists of forest and intrazonal rodent species.

Ranjan P.B., Titov V.V., Tesakov A.S., Trikhunkov Y.I., Çelik H.

P. 94-101

A fragment of proboscidean tusk from Pekecik (Plio-Pleistocene transition), Turkey, was studied to ascertain its taxonomic identification and biostratigraphic signal. Characteristic properties of the dentine (Schreger structures) were measured along the transversal and longitudinal sections. Schreger angles showed an increasing range from the tusk axis to the cement-dentine junction (CDJ) with values ranging from 61–109º. The variability of the qualitative Schreger pattern from the “X” type near the tusk axis to the “V” type at the cement-dentine junction (CDJ), were recorded. The wavelength of dentinal tubules showed a decreasing trend from 1.67 mm near the axis to 1.0 mm near the CDJ. Based on these properties, the specimen was compared with already published data and is tentatively assigned to a meridionaloid elephant cf. Archidiskodon sp. In our research, we conclude that the tusk microstructure features are a practical means of taxonomic study.