Содержание: Том 9 (2) 2010 (отпечатан 5 August 2011)
Lavrenchenko L.A., Kruskop S.V., Bekele A., Belay G., Morozov P.N., Ivlev Y.F., Warshavsky A.A.
The paper presents the results of a first attempt to document the mammals of the Babille Elephant Sanctuary (Eastern Ethiopia). Four species (Nycteris thebaica, Lavia frons, Mus tenellus, Helogale parvula) were documented for the first time in the Sanctuary, two species (Rhinolophus fumigatus, Mastomys awashensis) were found new for eastern Ethiopia and the presence of another species (Neoromicia zuluensis) was confirmed for the first time within the limits of Ethiopia. Moreover, genetic and chromosomal characteristics of two rodents (Acomys sp. and Gerbilliscus cf. robustus) suggested new undescribed species. In total, according to our current estimate based on original data and previously published literature, the mammal fauna of the Sanctuary includes 59 species belonging to 11 orders, 30 families and 51 genera. The Babille Elephant Sanctuary has significant conservation value due to its high mammal species diversity and complex structure of the fauna including elements with different zoogeographic affinities.
Maschenko E.N., Takai M.
Altanius is one of the oldest known euprimates discovered from the Early Eocene Naran-Bulak Formation, Tsagan-Khushu, southern Mongolia. In this paper, we describe three additional specimens of A. orlovi Dashzeveg et McKenna, 1977, and establish a new species, A. magnus sp. nov., in which m2 is distinctly larger than in A. orlovi. The discovery of a new species of Altanius provides further information on the evolutionary history of early primates on the Eurasian continent.
Lissovsky A.A., Obolenskaya E.V., Abramson N.I., Dokuchaev N.E., Yakimenko V.V., Mal’kova M.G., Bogdanov A.S., Ivanova N.V.
Morphometric variation of voles Microtus middendorffii sensu lato and M. gromovi was examined based on 221 skulls. Molecular variation was assessed on partial sequences of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (657 bp) from 23 individuals of M. middendorffii s.l. The observed pattern of variation within M. middendorffii s.l. corresponds to polytypic species comprising a number of geographic races. The taxonomic rank of the Ural and Yamal race (M. m. ryphaeus) is not lower than the rank of M. m. middendorffii and M. m. hyperboreus. Essential morphological differences within the scope of this study were found for the sample from the Kochechum River. The voles of M. gromovi are very similar morphologically to M. middendorffii. Taxa M. middendorffii, M. gromovi, and M. mongolicus form the single clade on the mitochondrial based tree, with M. gromovi as a basal taxon.
Tesakov A.S., Lebedev V.S., Bannikova A.A., Abramson N.I.
Red-backed voles are widespread animals in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere, and have considerable economic, medical, and scientific importance; the name Clethrionomys Tilesius, 1850 has been overwhelmingly used for red-backed voles in the extensive literature of the 20th and early 21st centuries. In 2003, Carleton, Musser & Pavlinov (2003) supported the priority of Myodes Pallas, 1811 over Clethrionomys as the oldest objective synonym of red-backed voles based on the priority of the type designation by Lataste (1883) over that of Hinton (1926). Musser & Carleton (2005) further advocated this usage in the influential third edition of Mammal Species of the World. An analysis of 19th century zoological literature shows widespread usage of Myodes as the generic name for Norway and Siberian lemmings (currently genus Lemmus Link, 1795). In accordance with that understanding, Coues (1877) gave a diagnosis of Myodes explicitly based on Mus lemmus, which constitutes a valid nomenclatural act designating the type species of the genus Myodes. According to Article 69.1 of the ICZN, all subsequent designations of type species (e.g. that of Lataste, 1883) are not valid. Therefore, Clethrionomys remains the valid genus name for red-backed voles and Myodes is a junior synonym of Lemmus. The incorrect usage of Myodes instead of Clethrionomys for red-backed voles has led to scientific and practical instability and confusion, and should be discontinued.
The provenance and age of camelid remains referred to Paracamelus cf. aguirrei by van der Made et al. (2002, 2003) are here questioned. These authors stated that the fossil material was collected from Cobanpinar, a Late Miocene locality in Central Anatolia (Turkey). Here, we demonstrate that these fossils probably came from an archeological site near Yozgat that was investigated at the same time as Cobanpinar. This paper provides detailed information concerning the origin of the material, and discusses differences in fossilization characters and colouration between the camel specimens and the mammalian fossils from Cobanpinar.
Baryshnikov G.F., Germonpré M., Baryshnikova S.V.
The morphometric characteristic of skulls and cheek teeth is given for the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) from the Late Pleistocene cave locality Goyet (Chamber B) in Belgium. The sexual distribution of the adult skulls shows them to belong to females; at the same time, data on the upper canines demonstrates approximately equal number of males and females. The gender analysis of the lower canines reveals almost double predominance of females against males. The study of the canine dimensions indicates that males were nearly 30% as large as females, which markedly exceeds the difference in size between genders in the brown bear (U. arctos). The mortality profile demonstrates prevalence of young and old individuals. Measurements of cheek teeth in the young and subadult bears exceed, on the average, those in adults, suggesting that predominantly males died in the younger age groups. The analysis of cheek teeth from the Goyet Cave reveals peculiarity of the sample in upper teeth P4 and M2, which resemble in the parameters those of the dentally less specialized ancestral species U. deningeri. This peculiarity may be explained by the diet of U. spelaeus in this region situated near the Pleistocene Ice Sheet, where poor vegetation provoked more consumption of animal food, probably shortly before entering hibernation.