Содержание: Том 13 (1) 2014 (отпечатан 23 June 2014)
Koh H. S., Kryukov A., Oh J. G., Bayarkhagva D., Yang B. G., Ahn N. H., Bazarsad D.
We obtained 20 complete cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) of Meles leucurus from the Korean Peninsula (mainland Korea and Jeju Island), Russian Far East, and Mongolia, and these sequences were compared to complete and partial (629 bp) sequences of M. leucurus, obtained from GenBank, in order to reexamine genetic differentiation among M. leucurus from Korea, Siberian and Far-eastern Russia, Mongolia, and China. We detected that M. leucurus is composed of two sympatric phylogroups (a major phylogroup from the Urals, Siberia, Mongolia, China, and mainland Korea and a minor phylogroup from China, Far-eastern Russia, mainland Korea, and Jeju Island), indicating that M. leucurus is a monotypic species in the cytochrome b gene. Thus, we concluded that our sequencing results do not support current subspecies classification of M. leucurus, recognizing it as a polytypic species, although further genetic analyses with other markers are needed to confirm our present findings. We also considered that M. leucurus from China and Russian Far East is in contact with M. leucurus from mainland Korea and Jeju Island during the last glacial period, although in both Jeju and Russian Far East the specimens belonging to one of the two phylogroups are found at present. Additionally, we considered that the degree of genetic divergence between insular M. anakuma from Japan and continental M. leucurus from mainland Asia is not so great that our sequencing results do not support current species classification, recognizing M. leucurus as a distinct species: we proposed further systematic analyses to clarify the specific status of M. anakuma.
Erofeeva M.N., Pavlova E.V., Antonevich A.L., Naidenko S.V.
Eurasian lynx is strongly seasonal in its reproduction. This seasonality in reproduction becomes apparent in spatial population structure and behavior of lynx males during the year. However it was not clear how are these changes correlated with physiological changes at the individual level. In this article we studied the changes in sperm quality and testosterone level in Eurasian lynx males over the year. It was shown that activity of reproductive system in Eurasian lynx males changed seasonally as well. Testosterone level increased in advance of the mating season and spermatogenesis “normalized” at the same period.
Spasskaya N. N.
Under consideration are different kinds of congenital dental anomalies in the domestic horses. It is shown that such anomalies are more frequent in the native breeds horses as compared to the cultivated breeds. Some anomalies, in particular false polidontiya of P1, are detected more often in younger animals, which is explained by possible loss of extra tooth during the animal’s life. Frequency of occurrence of dental anomalies is shown to increase in isolated groups, for example, in Iceland and in island of feral horses, as a result of inbreeding.
Puzachenko A. Yu., Pavlenko M. V., Korablev V. P., Tsvirka M. V.
Both genetic and morphometric methods have been applied for studying of differentiation in North China zokor, Myospalax psilurus, which includes zokors from Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai), North China, Eastern Mongolia and Russian Transbaikalia (Zabaykalsky Krai). There are two subspecies of North China zokor which were described earlier: M. p. psilurus and M. p. epsilanus. The taxonomic statuses of these forms are debated. The diploid number of chromosomes in tested zokors was 64, but there were notable differences in the karyotype structures from Zabaykalsky Krai (‘epsilanus’: 9-12 M-SM, 10-13 ST, 8-9 A:) and from Primorsky Krai (‘psilurus’: 9 M-SM, 13-14 ST, 8-9 A). These populations are clearly differed by spectra of blood serum proteins (transferrins): all samples from Primorsky Krai were found to be monomorphic by TF-B, while the samples from Zabaykalsky Krai possessed TF-C only. Marginal populations from Zabaykalsky Krai and Primorsky Krai have significant differences according to RAPD-PCR results of the study. That allows estimating these differences as corresponding to interspecies level. Genetic distance between them is high and it may be compared with the distance between another zokor species, M. aspalax and M. armandii (Pavlenko & Korablev, 2003a; Puzachenko et al., 2009; Tsvirka et al., 2011). A similar pattern of differentiation is detected by sequencing of mitochondrial markers: hypervariable region D-loop and cytochrome b (Tsvirka et al, 2009a).
The main morphological differences within the North China zokor were found out in hard palate features (foramina incisive size and construction, length of maxillary bone). According to the available data, zokors from Primorsky Krai are identical to the zokors from the southern part of the species range and are considered as typical M. p. psilurus. The zokors from the Great Khingan region must be considered as M. p. epsilanus. The zokors from Zabaykalsky Krai and Eastern Mongolia are definitely close to M. p. epsilanus by the morphometric data, but have some specific features in foramina incisiva construction, the length of the M1 and M2 and the total length of the upper tooth-row. So, we propose to consider this form as a separate subspecies of the North China zokor provisionally. For the further revision, integrated genetic and morphological research of the zokors from the Chinese part of the species range is necessary to be done.
Zorenko T., Koren T., Kryštufek B.
Microtus schidlovskii is a member of social voles (subgenus Sumeriomys) known from a small range in the highlands of Armenia. Similar voles were reported from Anatolia and Lebanon but were mainly ascribed to another enigmatic species M. irani. We assessed taxonomic position of M. schidlovskii from Armenia and its relationships with seven other species of social voles using molecular data. Phylogenetic reconstructions were based on a 409 bp fragment of cytochrome b M. schidlovskii and reference samples of M. irani, including M. irani karamani from Turkey and Lebanon. M. irani within its current scope emerged to be paraphyletic with respect to M. schidlovskii. Mean K2P distances in the irani-schidlovskii-karamani cluster were the highest (0.038) between the irani and the schidlovskii lineages and the lowest (0.028) between the schidlovskii and the karamani lineages; the distance separating the irani and karamani lineages was intermediate (0.032). The irani-schidlovskii-karamani group is genetically more variable than any other species group of social voles. We conclude that voles from Lebanon and Turkey (M. irani karamani) are conspecific with M. schidlovskii from Armenia. Furthermore, genetic divergence between M. irani and M. schidlovskii is the lowest among the species of social voles. And finally, our study restricted geographic scope of M. irani to its type locality in Shiraz.