Содержание: Том 7 (2) 2008 (отпечатан 10 June 2009)
Borisenko A.V., Kruskop S.V., Ivanova N.V.
A new mouse-eared bat (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Myotis “siligorensis” species group is being described from the Hon Ba Mountain, ca. 30 km WSW of Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam (12.1113° N, 108.953° E, 1250 m ASL), based on a set of morphological and genetic characters. The new species is essentially similar to M. siligorensis alticraniatus, differing in slightly larger size, morphometrics, fine cranial and bacular traits. 12S rDNA demonstrates ca. 2% sequence divergence between the new species and its nearest neighbour, suggesting a history of genetic isolation. Provisional bat survey data from the Bi Doup-Hon Ba massif suggest that, although the new species co-occurs with M. siligorensis in the southern part of the Vietnam Central Highlands area, they are separated by an altitudinal gradient and habitat preferences, the former occupying mature forest at higher elevations and the latter confined to disturbed foothill areas.
Kruskop S.V., Lavrenchenko L.A.
A short-term bat survey was conducted in spring, 2007, by the Joint Ethiopian-Russian Biological Expedition in the Mejangra Zone of the Gambela Peoples’ National Regional State, south-western Ethiopia. The area studied was adjacent to the Godare forest massif, one of the most lowland forests of Ethiopia. About 100 individuals of fifteen bat species from ten genera and six families were captured. Together with species recorded in 2000, the total bat community in Godare forest includes at least 19 species. One of the most important records is the third capture of Kerivoula lanosa from Ethiopia; the two previous captures in Ethiopia were more than a hundred years ago. The capture of Myotis bocagei also was only the third record from the country. Individuals of Rhinolophus and Miniopterus belong to undetermined species.
Fadeeva T.V., Kruskop S.V.
A case of presence of the upper small premolar in the genus Eptesicus is being described. Members of this genus were thought to be invariable in having no small premolars in upper toothrows. However, nine partial skulls of northern bats with traces of upper small premolars were excavated from cave deposits of Perm’ Territory. One additional specimen with abnormal dental formula was found in the collection of the Zoological Moscow of Moscow University. The presence of the small premolars in at least some individuals represents a primitive trait which puts E. nilssoni apart from the more advanced members of its genus.
Two forms of mole voles are present in the Early Pleistocene fauna of Sarkel. Ellobius (Ellobius) kujalnikensis is represented by scarce remains, which show morphological similarity to Early Pleistocene smaller mole voles of Eastern Europe. More numerous Ellobius (Bramus) tarchancutensis represent the second occurrence of this species in the region. The form from Lower Don area is relatively more hypsodont and has a more complex M3 than the type form from Crimea. The priority of the name Bramus Pomel, 1892 over Afganomys Topachevsky, 1965 is shown.
Kartavtseva I.V., Sheremetyeva I.N., Korobitsina K.V., Nemkova G.A., Konovalova E.V., Korablev V.V., Voyta L.L.
Analysis of the chromosomal characteristics of the Maximowicz’s vole Microtus maximowiczii (242 specimens) from Transbaikalia, Russian Far East, and Mongolia, including new data from 12 local populations, supplemented information about chromosomal polymorphism of the species (2n=36–44; NF=52–62). We describe chromosomal data for the populations which have not been investigated previously, reveal a fixation of the chromosomal reconstructions in the various geographical regions and describe for the first time the population with stabilized karyotype (2n=42) in the Chita Region. The revision of the chromosomal characteristics has been done, that resulted in suggestion to consider five forms in the species composition, three of which (C, D and I) are established herein. Perhaps M. m. gromovi exemplified by the chromosome form I should be considered as an independent species. The chromosomal forms differ not only in 2n and NF, but also in number of the biarmed and acrocentric chromosomes.
Matsunami S., Oshida T., Ichikawa H.
To examine the hypothesis that cranium and mandible morphology influence different feeding habits in pikas, we compared two samples: Ochotona princeps from California and Nevada, USA and O. hyperborea from Hokkaido, Japan. These pika species show similar ecological traits, are allopatrically distributed in Northern Hemisphere, and inhabit rocky hillsides on mountain. Of all measurements, 55% showed no significant differences, indicating the two samples had similarly sized and shaped skulls. Measurements with significant differences were related to origins and terminations of chewing muscles. Morphological differences between these two samples may result from differences in feeding habits.
In some mammalian species, pronounced muscularization together with increased spleen dimension allows this organ to store blood, releasing it in case of need. This is possible because of the large volume occupied by the cords of the red pulp and the richness in muscle cells of the capsule and trabeculae. Ungulates (excluding Cetaceans and Sirenians), Carnivores and Edentates show this splenic type. In other mammals, this organ do not store blood either because their different ecology or because this task is performed elsewhere in the body.