Содержание: Том 23 (1) 2024 (отпечатан 27 May 2024)

Matlova M.A., Agafonova E.V., Guseva N.V., Chistyakov D.V.

P. 01-17

The paper presents the results of studies of bats hibernating in the Staroladozhskaya and Tanechkina caves in Leningrad Region, Russia. Species composition, abundance, peculiarities of bats’ spatial distribution, and microclimatic conditions in the caves were studied in 2003 and 2018–2022. Six species of bats were recorded: Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, M. brandtii/mystacinus, M. nattereri, Plecotus auritus, and Eptesicus nilssonii. The most significant species diversity and abundance of bats were noted in the Tanechkina Cave, which is one of the longest in Leningrad Region. The number of hibernating bats has increased nearly fivefold since 2003, with circa 1900–2500 bats utilizing the cave presently. The composition of species abundance has changed over the years. In 2003, M. daubentonii and M. dasycneme predominated by number; whereas at the present, M. dasycneme comprises more than 70% of the total number of bats. The data on changes in the spatial structure of one of the largest bat communities in Leningrad Region over the period of ten years are presented in our paper for the first time.

Voyta L.L., Petrova T.V., Panitsina V.A., Bodrov S.Yu., Abramson N.I.

P. 18-24

The subfamily Crocidurinae unites white-toothed shrews (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) and is the largest group of living eulipotyphlans; among them, the genus Crocidura contains approximately half of soricids diversity. Within the Crocidura endemics of Central and West Asia, species group “pergrisea” retains relentless interest. In this context, a major question is the taxonomic position and validity of an Armenia endemic Crocidura armenica, which since 2014 has been excluded from the list of Mammal Species of the World. In this study, we obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of C. armenica from a holotype. In addition, we determined partial mitochondrial genomes of a Pamir Mountains endemic C. serezkyensis and of a white-toothed shrew with unclear taxonomic status: Crocidura cf. pergrisea from Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan. The phylogenetic analysis with the inclusion of the mitogenome sequences of the 28 species showed the closest position of C. armenica and Crocidura cf. pergrisea, with a sister position of the C. serezkyensis specimen.

Stakheev V.V., Lissovsky A.A., Obolenskaya E.V.

P. 25-30

The white-toothed shrew (Crocidura) from the species complex “pergrisea” was found in the Dagestan Republic, it is the first registration for the territory of Russian Federation. Information on the morphology of two captured animals, external and cranial features, is provided. The position of white-toothed shrews from the northern slope of Caucasus Mts. in the phylogenetic structure of “pergrisea” complex was studied. The clade that includes C. serezkyensis s.str., C. arispa and rock shrews from Dagestan was proposed to recognise as a separate species — Crocidura serezkyensis Laptev, 1929.

Iwasa M.A., Abe R.

P. 31-39

In burrowing mammals, the temperature and humidity in burrows are important microenvironmental factors for the metabolism. To characterize the temperature and relative humidity inside the burrows of the lesser Japanese mole, Mogera imaizumii, digital loggers were set to record these microenvironmental characteristics in underground burrows and the aboveground air as a control. The current temperature and relative humidity were more stable in underground than in aboveground considering that smaller daily differences in both temperature and relative humidity were recognized only in the burrows. The inside temperatures showed up to 26.1 ± 1.2°C irrespective of over 30°C in the aboveground and the mean inside relative humidity showed constantly values over 100% irrespective of the range from 42.8 ± 11.7% to 84.2 ± 9.0% in aboveground through a year. To avoid a restraint of radiation of body heat by evaporation in higher temperature and humidity, lower temperature as possible above 23°C as considered to be the lower limit of the thermoneutral zone seems to be more appropriate condition for the mole. The current results showing the temperatures around the limit (25.1 ± 0.6–26.1 ± 1.2°C) with over 100% relative humidity seem to fit to the more appropriate environment, at least in summer. The current findings means that the high humidity with lower temperature saves energy expended by increasing the metabolic rate in M. imaizumii and probably also in other burrowing mammals.

Zorenko T.A.

P. 40-51

Schelkovnikov’s pine vole Microtus schelkovnikovi is a little-studied endemic species of the Talysh-Western Alborz Mountains, covered with relict Hyrcanian broad-leaved forests. Laboratory studies have shown the seasonality of reproduction in the species. M. schelkovnikovi voles have low breeding intensity and small litters, however maintain long-term reproductive activity. Social monogamy is a characteristic of the species under laboratory conditions. Most of the predictions of monogamy are found in M. schelkovnikovi: females mating only within formed pairs, prolonged courtship, small litters, small testes and a low number of ejaculations in males. The copulatory stereotype in M. schelkovnikovi is characterized by a low number of ejaculations, triggered by numerous intromissions and an average level of genital stimulation. The pattern of copulatory stereotype unites the Schelkovnikov’s pine vole with species of such taxa as Microtus s. str., Sumeriomys, and Terricola, which corresponds to distinguishing the West Palearctic branch of voles in the tribe Arvicolini and opposes the East Asian branch identified on the basis of molecular studies.

Abramov A.V., Kruskop S.V., Nguyen T.S.

P. 52-56

The distribution of Vandeleuria oleraceus in eastern Indochina was analysed based on the available information and museum specimens. There are a few records from Laos, the only confirmed locality in Cambodia and records from north-western and southern Vietnam. The population from southern Vietnam (Dalat Plateau) is likely to be a geographic isolate that could represent a distinct taxon.

Gromov V.S.

P. 57-72

The present review provides a compilation of the published data on the phenomena of multiple mating by females and multiple paternity in their litters in 48 rodent species with different mating systems, reproductive strategies, and social structures. Multi-male mating is common in female rodents, but this is one of the unsolved problems of behavioral ecology so far. Proposed explanations of multi-male mating assume the potential fitness benefits to females that include fertility assurance by reducing genetic incompatibility, increased genetic diversity of offspring and litter size, postcopulatory sexual selection through sperm competition, an increase in uncertainty of paternity and thus reduction in the probability of infanticide, as well as enhanced access to resources. Multiple paternity is also thought to increase offspring genetic diversity and the effective population size. Different genetic markers have been employed to document multiple paternity including DNA fingerprinting and microsatellites. The results of studies conducted on the above rodent species are discussed and analyzed to check whether the predictions of the above hypotheses about the potential benefits of fitness for females in general or in some particular cases are justified.

Ponomarev D.V., Kryazheva I.V., Marchenko-Vagapova T.I., Isakov V.A., Selkova L.A.

P. 73-82

The study examined rodent bone remains, spore-pollen assemblages, and the granulometric composition of sediments found in a bird of prey nest in the northern taiga of the Middle Timan in the Komi Republic. The data obtained was compared to previous research on contemporary flora and fauna. The sediments consist of silty clays and loams formed by surface water, which removed sediments and weathered bedrock carbonate products from the slope. Sediments accumulated approximately for 30 years, as shown by the discovery of a bird ring in the top layer of the nest sediment. Among the rodent remains, 12 species typically found in the fauna of the northern taiga of Eastern Europe have been identified. The predominance of remains belonging to riparian species in the sub-fossil assemblage is due to the raptor’s hunting specialization. Compared to the data obtained through trapping small mammals using trenches, the nest materials lack only shrews. Nevertheless, there are still rare and elusive species that go undetected by traps due to their size or lifestyle present in the materials. The spore-pollen assemblages discovered in the sediments of bird nests offer a reliable depiction of the current vegetation in the surrounding area, which encompasses both the zonal vegetation category and even the existence of uncommon forest-tundra combinations within the research zone. The data obtained demonstrate the capability of using bone remains as well as spores and pollen found in nests of birds of prey to analyze recent flora and fauna.

Malikov D.G., Burova V.V., Klementiev A.M., Malikova E.L.

P. 83-94

An analysis of the geographical distribution of the cave lion (Panthera spelaea) and the cave hyena (Crocuta spelaea) finds in Baikal-Yenisei Siberia has shown that these species were predominantly confined to different landscapes. The cave lion tended to inhabit plains and river valleys, whereas the cave hyena inhabited foothill areas. The cave hyenas were especially abundant at the beginning of Karginian interstadial (MIS 3) and persisted up to Karginian–Sartanian boundary (MIS 3–MIS 2). The cave lion had a broader chronological distribution during the second half of the Late Pleistocene. Panthera spelaea persisted in the region almost until the terminal Pleistocene, and its demise was apparently associated with extinction of the largest representatives of the mammoth fauna.