Содержание: Том 21 (2) 2022 (отпечатан 18 November 2022)

Rutovskaya M.V., Diatroptov M.E.

P. 103-114

Both during hibernation at normothermia and while the animals are active in summer the body temperature of hedgehogs fluctuates significantly in the range from 26 to 38°C. Seasonal variability in body temperature is related to reproduction and ambient temperature. During the breeding season in May and June, the body temperature of hedgehogs is significantly higher in both males and females comparing to other seasons. This is probably due to the period of active reproduction and seasonal variability in the hormones’ content in blood. The average daily body temperature in hedgehogs correlates with the ambient temperature in the summer months — May and June, when the night air temperatures do not differ much from those during daytime one and are of the optimal range for hedgehogs. In spring, at the end of summer, and in autumn, the ambient temperature may drop significantly, being out of the optimal range, and the animal body temperature does not always follow the ambient temperature changes, so no reliable correlation between them are observed. The body temperature of hedgehogs during the day is not constant: during the daytime rest in summer period, most hedgehogs have a lower body temperature, which probably saves energy. During the non-hibernation period, females usually have a higher body temperature comparing to males, which may be associated with physiological features and, in particular, with a higher metabolism. The photoperiod affects the duration of activity of hedgehogs and, accordingly, the time during which the body temperature of hedgehogs is elevated at night. During normothermia at the hibernation period, ultradian rhythms are observed for the animal body temperature with periods of 4.0–4.3 h; apparently, they are masked by the influence of other factors during the period of activity of hedgehogs.

Son N.T., Yuzefovich A.P., Kruskop S.V.

P. 115-122

During the 2020–2021 trips, the bat fauna of Hon Tre Island, located in Nha Trang Bay in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, was studied for the first time. Despite the small size of the island and the lack of fresh water sources on it, we revealed the presence of at least nine bat species from four families, which were captured and studied in the hand. The family Pteropodidae is represented by Cynopterus sphinx, an extremely ecologically flexible species, and also by Rousettus leschenaulti and Eonycteris spelaea; family Hipposideridae — by three species of Hipposideros: H. grandis, H. galeritus and H. gentilis; family Rhinolophidae — by Rhinolophus cf. pusillus and R. pearsonii; family Megadermatidae — by Megaderma spasma. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained for six individuals of three species, which made it possible to confirm morphology-based identifications of the captured animals. In particular, this concerned R. pearsonii, whose specimens differed from those known from the mainland, primarily by their smaller size. The presence of a multi-species bat community on Hon Tre Island necessitates careful planning of tourism and infrastructure development, in order to minimize impact on the natural habitats of the island.

Gromov V.S.

P. 123-138

The article concerns the effects of paternal deprivation in social rodents (California mice, Mongolian gerbils, mandarin and prairie voles and degus) whose social organizations are characterized by a family-group lifestyle and biparental care. Paternal deprivation was found to have a dramatic effect on pup survival (e.g. in California mice), as well as negatively affect pair bonding and adult parental behavior in other social rodents. Paternal deprivation resulted in reduction of central expression of some steroid and neuropeptide receptors in offspring. Besides, paternal deprivation was found to alter the regional density as well as the homoeostatic balance of distinct interneuron populations in an age- and brain region-specific manner; it also affects maturation of excitatory spine synapses in prefrontal cortical and limbic regions. The father-deprived individuals showed the behavioral differences resulted from altered brain circuits. As a result, cognitive and emotional competence might be essentially changed in father-deprived animals. These findings indicate the importance of paternal care and paternal bonding as a unique source of sensory and socio-emotional stimuli, which may protect the offspring from developing an increased vulnerability towards stress-related life events.

Pavlinov I.Ya.

P. 139-145

Variation and covariation of the molar crown elements of prismatic dentition in the genus Ondatra (Mammalia: Rodentia: Arvicolinae) was studied numerically by means of geometric morphometric and cluster analyses. 31 elements were identified in total, their shapes were described by semilandmarks, their covariation patterns were analyzed by cluster analysis of vectorized Procrustes distance matrices with bootstrap estimations of cluster supports. Within-tooth comparisons recognize the modules that combine crown elements corresponding to the opposing pairs of cusps characteristic of generalized cricetine dentition. Results of comparison of crown elements within each toothrow indicate that integration effect, uniting homologous elements in adjacent teeth into dispersed modules, may be stronger than that uniting opposing elements in the same teeth. Comparison of crown elements of upper and lower toothrows reveals covariation of anterior part of lower M1 and posterior part of upper M3, which underwent coherent complication in the arvicoline evolution. It is concluded that the approach, based on combination of elementaristic GM-description of dental crowns and cluster analysis of covariations of their elements, may become an important tool for exploration of integration patterns of specialized dentition in herbivorous mammals.

Serdyuk N.V.

P. 146-152

The article describes the second upper molar of the forest dormouse Dryomys nitedula from the Late Pleistocene deposits of the Paleolithic site Strashnaya Cave (Altai, Russia). The forest dormouse was in association with relatively thermophilous species. It is the first record of the forest dormouse in Altai area. The Strashnaya Cave is currently the easternmost Pleistocene record of the forest dormouse.

Zakharov E.S., Safronov V.M., Zakharova N.N., Petrov R.E., Filippova V.V., Koryakina L.P., Kruse S.

P. 153-161

Long-term changes in the harvesting of the Siberian weasel Mustela sibirica in Yakutia indicate a relatively stable population of this species from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century. In the 2000s, prolonged depression of water vole and mountain hare populations caused a reduction in Siberian weasel numbers (i.e., abundance), despite the presence of its other prey species: mouse-like rodents and muskrats. The change of the main prey species altered the cyclicity of this predator’s population. With the decrease in Siberian weasel abundance, the percentage of young animals diminished (from 85.6% to 60.8%), as did the yield of young animals per mature female (from 11.4 to 5.0); meanwhile, among young animals, the proportion of females went up (to 60.0%), but among adults, there was an increase in the proportion of males (to 69%). Anthropogenic causes of the recent reduction in Siberian weasel abundance are listed. Competition with the sable had an additional negative influence.

Kuznetsov D.N., Romashova N.B., Romashov B.V.

P. 162-168

The species of gastrointestinal nematodes found during necropsies of 26 moose from four regions of European Russia (Tver’, Smolensk, Ryazan’ and Voronezh) were determined. In total, eight species of nematodes were registered: Aonchotheca bovis, Ashworthius sidemi, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirella alcidis, Ostertagia antipini, Spiculopteragia asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus capricola and Trichuris ovis. Beside this, a minor morph of O. antipini (“Ostertagia lyrataeformis”) was found in seven moose from all of the studied regions. Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking nematode, was found in moose in Voronezh region, and this fact indicates the further spreading of this Asian parasite among ruminants in Europe. Apparently, the reason for the relatively low species diversity of nematodes noted in this study is the small number of contacts of moose with other ruminants in the study areas. The intensity of infection was also relatively low and ranged from 87 to 1660 nematodes. The extensity of infection ranged from 3.8% for Aonchotheca bovis to 100% for Mazamastrongylus dagestanica. No nematode species more typical for domestic ruminants was found, which indicates the absence of contacts between the studied moose and livestock.

Siracusa A.M., Santitto A., Camarda D., D’Urso V.

P. 169-179

The present study was carried out through analysis of bone remains in 1003 long-eared owl pellets of Asio otus (Strigiformes, Strigidae). The investigated area is in the Southeastern slope of Mount Etna (Sicily) outside the boundary of Etna Park. A total of eight species were found of ten species known for the whole Sicily, such as Microtus nebrodensis (Rodentia, Cricetidae), Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus domesticus, Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae), Eliomys quercinus (Rodentia, Gliridae), Suncus etruscus and Crocidura sicula (Soricomorpha, Soricidae). The most frequent species among the total specimens found in the long-eared owl pellets was vole M. nebrodensis with a frequency of 75.24% and composed of 57.54% of a biomass in analysed habitats. The second most frequent species was A. sylvaticus with a frequency percentage of 13.23%, but participates third place in the assessed biomass (10.52% of the biomass), thereas the more masses species R. norvegicus composed of 29.29% of the biomass and with a frequency of 7.47% in the owl pellets. The high number of species found (eight species out of ten known for the Sicilian small mammal fauna), and the medium-low diversity values (Gini-Simpson = 0.41; Shannon-Weaver = 0.64) are likely to be attributed to the fragmentation of habitats and consequent ecotone effect. The high value of the Cricetidae/Muridae ratio and the low value of the trophic level index (Soricidae/Rodentia ratio) highlight a type of agricultural anthropization. The composition and structure of the studied small mammal community confirmed a consolidated medium-high level of agricultural anthropization in a landscape characterized by a mosaic of rural and natural environments. However, the importance of these agro-ecosystems depends on the high number of small mammal species present, including some of conservation interest.

Kosintsev P.A., Yakovlev A.G., Plasteeva N.A., Gimranov D.O.

P. 180-191

The study describes mammalian fauna from Barsuchiy Dol cave in the Southern Urals, Russia. The accumulation of faunal remains in the cave deposits occurred due to natural processes. The remains from layers 1–4 were disturbed by fossorial activities of badgers. The faunal assemblage from these layers contain mixed remains of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The faunal assemblage from the layer 5 was excavated from in situ deposits. The of taxonomic composition and representation of skeletal element indicate that bone remains were accumulated in the layer 5 as digging activities of a badger (Meles meles), and natural death of larger (Ursus kanivets) and smaller (Ursus rossicus) cave bears during hibernation. The mammalian fauna from Barsuchiy Dol included typical species of the mammoth complex, as well as the mole (Talpa europaea), desman (Desmana moschata), red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), Malayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura), forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European badger (M. meles), lynx (Lynx lynx), and Merck’s rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis). The remains of steppe (Ochotona, Spermophilus, Lagurus, Allocricetulus, Cricetulus and Eolagurus) and “tundra-steppe” (Lasiopodomys gregalis) species comprise about 50% of the small mammal fauna. The remains of relatively thermophilic (Dryomys, Hystrix), mesophilic (Cricetus) and “forest” (Sciurus, Apodemus, Clethrionomys, Microtus agrestis) species account for about 40% of the assemblage. The taxonomic composition and ecological structure of the fauna evidence interglacial conditions. The chronological position of the fauna was determined based on the analysis of the enamel differentiation quotient (SDQ) and the size of the m1 of the water vole (Arvicola spp.). The SDQ values in voles from layer 5 are close to the values observed in voles from Eastern European and Ural localities dated to the end of OIS6 and OIS5-2. The length of the tooth in voles from Barsuchiy Dol cave is similar to that in the voles from the OIS5-2 sites. Based on the data on evolutionary morphology of Arvicola and taxonomic composition of fossil assemblage, the fauna from layer 5 was dated to the OIS 5e (Mikulino, Tabulda, Streletsk, Kazantsevo, and Eemian) interglacial.

Logunov D.V., Averianov A.O.

P. 192-216

The paper presents a brief biography and scientific achievements of a renowned Russian mammologist Alexei Vladimirovich Abramov (b. 1962) in relation to his 60th anniversary. The paper is illustrated by photos obtained from colleagues who personally know A.V. Abramov and from his family archive.