Содержание: Том 20 (2) 2021 (отпечатан 16 November 2021)
Kruskop S.V., Artyushin I.V.
Bats are the second largest mammalian order with an almost worldwide distribution. Bat taxonomy remained almost unchanged for decades, and the diversity of the order was underestimated. The advent of molecular methods brought change to chiropteran taxonomy. The number of families increased from 17–18 to 21, and the relationships between them were revised, as were the composition of suborders and superfamilies. The number of recognized species and genera went up by almost a third. As a discipline, bat taxonomy has changed much methodologically and conceptually. After its long reign, comparative morphology has faded into the background. It has become clear that characters can diverge and converge in related species, masking true phylogenetic relationships. Not writing morphology off entirely, it does necessitate resorting to finer structures or multivariate data analysis. Karyology is of limited use in bat taxonomy, but methods such as FISH add to the understanding of relationships between suprageneric taxa. Mitochondrial DNA sequences are easy to obtain, and their analysis yields well-supported phylogenetic trees, but reticular processes and other factors may mask taxon boundaries. To resolve the uncertainty, nuclear markers are used, and their number and choice depends on taxon characteristics. Overall, building a consistent chiropteran system calls for an integration of all mentioned approaches.
Iwasa M.A., Takahashi M.
The soil hardness inside burrows was studied in the lesser Japanese mole, Mogera imaizumii, to evaluate differences in the hardness of the ground surface, sidewalls, and bottoms of regular burrows (high usage frequency, Rb) and temporary burrows (low usage frequency, Tb). We analyzed usage frequency at
68 burrow points by setting snare-type tube traps, which triggered responses by the moles, at each burrow point to record the usage of moles without capturing them. These burrow points were classified as Rb or Tb based on the presence or absence of a response, respectively, sixteen hours after being set; 20 burrow points were identified as Rb, and 48 were identified as Tb. No differences in the frequencies of Rb and Tb were observed relation to the depth, which is related to the vertical gradient of hardness. In addition, newly detected burrows were more frequently found to be Tb than in Rb during early spring to summer, which seems to be related to mole dispersal. Moreover, we measured the soil hardness of the ground surface, sidewalls, and bottoms of the burrows at the 68 burrow points. On comparisons of the relationships between the soil hardness and the burrow usage frequency, we found that the bottoms were significantly harder in Rb than in Tb. Therefore, the hardness of the bottom soil in Rb is considered to have been caused by the frequent treading of mole movements.
Voyta L.L., Zazhigin V.S., Kryuchkova L.Yu.
This note represents actual information on the composition of currently investigated Neogene and Pleistocene collections of soricid shrews permanently stored in collections of the Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (GIN, Russia, Moscow), clarification of the collection catalogue numbers of the keeping specimens and short collectors information. At present, most shrew type specimens (e.g., Shargainosorex angustirostris) and some other specimens (n = 36) from the GIN fossil collection, which were investigated from 2016 to 2021, have 3D digital image stacks (preliminary data sets) that had been obtained using computed microtomography. All of the 3D digital image stacks of the GIN specimens are keeping in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ZIN, Russia, Saint Petersburg) digital repository. The paper represents technical information on each digitized item.
Zorenko T.A., Kagainis U.E.
The Asian and European populations of Microtus hartingi have been isolated for a long time by the Straits of Dardanelle and the Bosporus, which could cause different degrees of divergence of morphological structures. The aim of this study was to compare the shape and linear features of spermatozoa of two subspecies of M. hartingi using different methods — geometric and linear morphometrics. The results obtained showed that geometric morphometrics more precisely demonstrates the change in the shape of the spermatozoon of two taxa. The shape of the spermatozoa head of M. h. hartingi is globular, with retracted basal part compared to the slimmer head with a stronger developed basal protrusion in M. h. lydius. The variability of the head shape is insignificant within each taxon, while considerable polymorphism is shown for the shape of acrosome. We have identified several types of acrosome shape, of which two types dominate in the opposite ratio in the two subspecies. Other types of acrosome shape are rare. The question of the diversity of the acrosome shape is discussed. We recommend the method of geometric morphometry of spermatozoa to consider variations of this cell structure in mammals at species and subspecies levels. Linear morphometry of spermatozoa may be less successful due to the methodological features of the preparing spermatozoa slides for subsequent analysis; therefore, the dimensional parameters of spermatozoa differ significantly, which complicates their use in taxonomy.
Long-term monitoring (2015–2019) was carried out on artificial salt licks (a total of 19 in 3 districts). The total monitoring time was 7123 camera trap days. Depending on the place and year of monitoring, from 5 to 33 different individuals were recorded on each salt lick. Six sex and age groups were identified: adult males, yearling males, adult single females, yearling female, adult females with calves, adult females with yearling individuals. All duration data by sex and age groups including "passing" visits have the form of an exponential distribution (λ = 0.029 ± 0.001 min-1). The data of the duration of geophagous visits have the form of a gamma distribution (k = 1.76 ± 0.087; θ = 21.20 ± 1.501 min). European Moose visit salt licks all year round, most actively in May-August. The average duration of a visit is close to half an hour for each of the identified groups (33.7 ± 1.3 min for all groups; clear time of geophagous visit is 33.2 ± 2.8 min). The duration of salt licking and the mineral lick attendance differs between some identified sex-age groups and months. During the days of salt licking, the same individual most often visits the lick several times (1 to 5 visits a day (max 11), on average 1.48 ± 0.39). The activity of visiting salt licks during the day has a pronounced tendency to acquire peak values in the twilight post-sunset and pre-dawn periods. The moose use a third of the month (34.9% ± 20.8% of month) for salt licking, alternating this with various- time periods break. Age and sex competition for the use of salt licks was noted.
Titov V.V., Baigusheva V.S., Uchytel’ R.S.
We have reconstructed Elasmotherium’s head based on complete intact skulls morphology analysis. The bony protuberance on the frontal bone was covered with a horny substance that protected the dome’s relatively thin bones. The keratinized cover grew from the base, clearly visible in the lower part of the bony dome, and its top was displaced dorso-aborally. The dome’s inner surface was an overgrown nasal cavity and served to intensify sense of smell, and, possibly, enhance sounds emitted. A relatively small narrow terminal horn-like cornified pad was attached at nasal and intermaxillary bones’ end, it served to loosen and dig up soil for lants’ succulent underground parts searching. Powerful muscles were especially prominent on the neck, they used to carry out lateral and dorsolateral movements of the head.
Sakurai Y., Uraguchi K., Kouguchi H., Oshida T.
Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, which uses red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a principle definitive host. To decrease E. multilocularis prevalence in red foxes, feeding the “fox bait” containing anthelmintic praziquantel to red foxes is effective. However, a previous investigation conducted in Hokkaido, Japan showed that raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes viverrinus albus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), domestic cats (Felis catus), and murids frequently consumed fox baits without the anthelmintic praziquantel, suggesting they compete with red foxes for the bait. On the other hand, anthelmintic praziquantel has a bitter taste and unpleasant odor to dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and cats. The inclusion of anthelmintic praziquantel in the bait may deter the consumption of fox baits by non- target mammals. Therefore, by using camera traps, we examined the seasonal consumption of fox baits with the anthelmintic praziquantel by mammals in Memuro, Tokachi District, Hokkaido, Japan, from May to October, 2019. We found that red foxes, raccoons, raccoon dogs, murids, and Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) frequently consumed fox baits. Therefore, the bitterness and smell of the bait do not efficiently work to prevent consumption by non-target mammals. Of those, raccoon dogs were most frequent consumers of the fox bait. Raccoons and Eurasian red squirrels also frequently consumed the fox bait, especially in spring and in autumn, respectively. These results show competition for fox baits by non-target mammals. This should be considered for planning of the baiting campaign.
Scopin A.E., Lipatnikova S.V., Shikhova T.G.
We have studied the composition of scats in the free-ranging population of the red fox Vulpes vulpes on Urup Island during the population depression of the island's key prey — the brown rat Rattus norvegicus caraco. The scat samples were collected on the northern and southern points of the island. We determined the occurrence of certain food components and biomass of the different-sized fractions of the faecal particles after sieving. Vertebrates make up a small part of the red fox`s diet, both in terms of occurrence and biomass of the remains in the scats. The occurrence of the micromammals is less than 20%. Bird remains occur in the scats twice as high especially in the northern part of the island, where there are forest communities. Insects and crustaceans have the greatest occurrence and the bulk of the biomass in the faecal fragments. This demonstrates the importance of coastal and tidal habitats for the red fox. The berries of wild shrubs are often found in the scats. The discrete mean (dMean) of faecal particle size is 2.47 ± 0.12 mm for all samples. The dMean value is determined by the proportion of the largest faecal particle fraction. The proportion of the smallest size fraction of particles reliably correlates with the fraction of insect biomass. The negative correlation is found between the proportions of the biomass of insects and crustaceans, and between the proportion of crustaceans and the proportion of plant items in the scats. In the period of reduction and absence of some foods in local island sites, the red fox switches to alternative forages easily, confirming its dietary plasticity and opportunistic omnivory. The importance of certain food items in the fox nutrition and the ecological significance of this mesopredator in the ecosystems of Urup Island have been discussed.
Stille M., Gasteratos I., Stille B.
The occurrence and distribution of ten larger terrestrial mammals on the Ionian Island of Corfu were investigated from January 2020 to March 2021. The northern white-breasted hedgehog and the stone marten were found to be common, and this is probably also the case for the least weasel. The red fox was primarily found in the island’s rocky northeast and although not uncommon it may be under pressure as it is often considered a pest. Wild boars were found to be present, and reproduction may occur, but the status of this species needs further investigation. The Eurasian otter was found in several areas around the island, but the data indicates that the Corfu population contains few individuals that move over large areas. We suggest strengthened protection for this species to avoid further population decline and subsequent extinction. Brown hares of unknown origins are repeatedly released on the island, and in combination with extensive hunting any genetic characteristics of the indigenous population is expected to be lost. No evidence for presence of fallow deer was found, and except for photos of single specimens this was also the case for red deer and golden jackal. All investigated species are potentially threatened by habitat loss, caused by increasing tourism, extensive development, high water out-take and, in some cases, persecution.
The article considers the biography of Anna Semyonovna Stroganova (Evdonina) — a specialist in the field of ecology and faunistics of mammals, Candidate of Biological Sciences, a researcher at the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (ZIN). The article provides information about the family, education at the Leningrad State University (1929–1933), work at the Leningrad Commercial- Biological Zonal Station (1932–1941), and the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1941–1961). The nature of A.S. Stroganova’s work is described to study the ecology of commercial mammals and methods for predicting the dynamics of their numbers to justify fur harvesting in the country and quotas for the permissible withdrawal of resources. The period of her life in the ZIN in the first year of the Great Patriotic War, summer evacuation to Elabuga and then to Stalinabad in 1942, work in Tajikistan and return to Leningrad, restoration work at the Institute and scientific activity in the post-war years are considered in sufficient detail. A.S. Stroganova researched the ecology of commercial mammals and devised methods for predicting the dynamics of their numbers. She also studied the faunistics of mammals in the trans-Volga region and the possibility of changes in fauna because of agricultural afforestation and irrigation. A.S. Stroganova published more than 20 research papers. Unfortunately, her life ended way too soon. She only had half a century to live and did not manage to finish many of her projects or publish all of the articles she wrote.