Содержание: Том 11 (2) 2012 (отпечатан 27 December 2012)
The analysis of bone assemblages from the Kudaro Paleolithic sites in Southern Ossetia provides a basis for identification of seven species of canids. The Middle Pleistocene fauna contains Canis arnensis kudarensis subsp. nov., C. mosbachensis, C. lunellensis, Vulpes praeglacialis, and V. vulpes, while the Late Pleistocene fauna contains Canis lupus, Cuon alpinus caucasicus, and Vulpes vulpes. Fossil remains of Canis arnensis, C. mosbachensis, and C. lunellensis represent the latest finds for Eurasia.
Ponomarev D.V., van Kolfschoten T., van der Plicht J.
Results of studying micromammalian remains from 15 cave-type localities situated in northeastern Europe are presented. Radiocarbon dating enabled to study the fauna development during six climatic phases: Bшlling-Allerшd, Younger Dryas, Preboreal, Boreal, Subboreal and Subatlantic. Assemblages of Bшlling-Allerшd with predominance of Siberian lemming are followed by communities of the Younger Dryas. These are dominated by xerophilous species: narrow-headed vole in the Subpolar Urals, and collared lemming in the rest of region. A considerable proportion of tundra species remained in communities during the Preboreal. A drastic transformation of micromammalian communities from the tundra-steppe to forest has occurred after 9000 BP, and possibly before 8500 BP. The modern-like fauna was formed during the Subatlantic.
Gorbunova I.M., Tretyakov K.A.
The specific structure and number of small mammals on 31 localities of undeveloped territories of Saint-Petersburg was investigated. In total 2648 small mammals belonging to 13 species were trapped. Their diversity increases from the centre of town to periphery. Majority of species were found in parks and urbanized forests located in city’s peripherals whereas the maximum amount of species per station did not exceed eight. The most abundant species were field mice Apodemus agrarius (Pallas, 1771) and bank voles Myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780).
Abramson N.I., Petrova T.V., Dokuchaev N.E., Obolenskaya E.V., Lissovsky A.A.
A range-wide phylogeographic study of the gray red-backed vole (Craseomys rufocanus), was carried out using cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mtDNA and a fragment of the Y-chromosome SRY gene. The results, based on 271 specimens from 81 localities over the majority of the species distribution, demonstrate that there are four main mitochondrial lineages with partly sympatric distribution. Spatial distribution of SRY haplotypes generally coincides with the mitochondrial distribution, being different mainly in details. However one of the mitochondrial lineages is not reflected in Y-chromosome based data. Most of the genetic diversity of C. rufocanus is allocated within the south-eastern part of the range, where representatives of all discovered mtDNA lineages and most of the SRY haplogroups have been found. The observed genetic structure could be explained by repeated glacial fragmentation of the species range together with following dispersion from several refugia.
Felid skulls often appear as evidence in wildlife forensic casework at the National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory (NFWFL). Five species commonly seen in U.S.-imported trophy shipments include cheetah, jaguar, leopard, puma, and snow leopard. Because these species are given different levels of protection under federal, state, and international law, an effective prosecution requires species-level identification. There is limited comparative morphological information available to identify these skulls to species when country of origin is unknown. The purpose of the project was twofold: 1) to research species-specific characteristics that will differentiate five species of medium-sized felids based on skull morphology and 2) to develop identification aids to help wildlife law enforcement officers distinguish mid-size cat skulls. A visual comparison of qualitative non-metric features, such as the shape of the ectotympanic process and the expression of canine grooves, is sufficient to distinguish the five species. A flowchart and identification guide were developed to assist law enforcement officers in identifications when measuring devices cannot be used, especially when conducting undercover investigations.