Содержание: Том 1 (1) 2002 (отпечатан 24 June 2002)
Gambaryan P.P., Aristov A.A., Dixon J.M., Zubtsova G.Ye.
A thorough description of the hind limb and pelvic muscles of two species of the monotremes is given. The homology of some muscles is discussed. During terrestrial locomotion the platypus shows a movement pattern which is optimal for swimming. Locomotion in the monotremes shows specific mechanical characteristics which differ from those in other tetrapods. Retraction of the femur is one of the main components of propulsive movement in majority of tetrapods; in sphenodontians, crocodiles, squamates it can reach more than 70°, and in therians it is 50–70°. In the monotremes the terrestrial locomotion is executed mainly by pronation of the femur, retraction being no more than 15°. A new hypothesis is proposed on the tuber calcanei evolutionary changes in the tetrapods. Enlargement of the tuber calcanei is usually believed to be strictly connected with the increasing role of flexion in the ankle joint. We consider tuber calcanei primary enlargement to be caused by increasing abduction in the ankle joint which helped the hind foot from slipping sideways during symmetrical-diagonal gaits in animals with widely extended extremities. Tuber calcanei enlargement in mammalian ancestors (as well as the analogous structure enlargement in crocodiles) resulted in increasing load on the lateral toes. In the mammalian evolutionary trend to use asymmetrical gaits, the primary function of the tuber calcanei changed gradually in a way that it could help increasing flexion in the ankle joint, transformation came to an end when mammalian extremities became parasagittal in position. There is an undoubted connection between the tuber calcanei and the fifth metatarsal in Monotremata as well as many advanced cynodonts.
Lissovsky A.A., Lissovskaya E.V.
Body and skull measurements, frontopariteal suture, palatal opening, pelage coloration, and alarm calls in two sympatric races of the pikas from the Putorana Plateau were investigated. These data confirms that characters distinguishing these two races are of the species level. A key characters to distinguished these races are discussed.
Golenishchev F.N., Sablina O.V., Borodin P.M., Gerasimov S.
Dentition and baculum morphology in social voles of the subgenus Sumeriomys from the Southern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia were examined. The specimens investigated come from 20 different sites, majority of which are the type localities for the nominal species-level taxa. Also results of the study of the karyotype, including differentially stained chromosomes for social voles from different parts of their geographic range and their hybrids are discussed. The synaptoneme complexes (SCs) for study of the chromosome pairing in different forms of voles was investigated. For Microtus (S.) schidlovskii Argyropulo, 1933 and M. (S.) paradoxus Ognev et Heptner, 1928 a species status is confirmed by our research. Two new subspecies of M (S). socialis Pallas, 1773 are described: M. s. aristovi Golenishchev ssp. nov. and M. s. zaitsevi Golenishchev ssp. nov. The identification keys based on the baculum structure for the subgenus Sumeriomys are presented.
The morphology of baculum (os penis) of the badger Meles meles from different parts of its Palaearctic range is examined. Three types of the bacular structure are distinguished. Morphological differences in the baculum between the European, continental Asian and Japanese populations support the previous splitting of the badger into three taxonomic forms. The status of these forms is here asserted to be of species level: the European badger Meles meles (L., 1758), the Asian badger M. leucurus (Hodgson, 1847), and the Japanese badger M. anakuma Temminck, 1844.
The seven faunal units (Akhalkalaki, Urup, Kudaro, Kvaisi, Binagady, Chasovali, Akhstyr) are recognized for the Caucasian Middle and Late Pleistocene mammals for the first time. These local groups correlate to the middle and late Galerian and Aurelian Mammal Ages in Western Europe. There are differences between species composition in the Transcaucasian localities, comprising warm-requiring and forest species and that in the Northern Caucasian localities, containing steppe and boreal species.