Содержание: Том 14 (1) 2015 (отпечатан 3 June 2015)
Gambaryan P.P., Kuznetsov A.N., Panyutina A.A., Gerasimov S.V.
For the first time, the comparative myological analysis of the forelimbs of all living genera of Monotremata is performed. Based on thorough dissection, the degree of morphological primitivity is established of Tachyglossidae relative to Ornithorhynchus, and of monotremes as a whole relative to therians. It appeared that the composition of forelimb muscles in Tachyglossidae is more primitive above the elbow, while that in Ornithorhynchus is more primitive below the elbow. Some muscles, e.g. the m. serratus ventralis cervicis and the m. flexor digitorum profundus, are built in monotremes almost as primitive as in amphibians. In general, the forelimb of monotremes is confirmed to be a good model of pre-mammalian locomotorium.
Marine mammal (MM) observations were carried out during seismic survey of a 37 km2 area in water depths ranging from 37–58 m in the Gulf of Guayaquil in May– June 2013. Twenty-one encounters with individual MMs or groups of MMs were recorded during 216 hours of observer effort. Bottlenose dolphins were most frequently seen, but observers also recorded the presence of striped dolphins and of humpback and killer whales and of sea lions. This short paper presents companion meteorological observations and considers the influence of weather and other environmental conditions on the frequency of the MM encounters.
The analysis of bone remains of canids from the Upper-Pleistocene deposits of Geographical Society Cave in Primorskii Territory, Russia, revealed the presence of 4 species: Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canis lupus, Cuon alpinus, and Vulpes vulpes. Their accumulation is associated predominantly with the food activity of larger carnivores (Crocuta ultima, Panthera tigris), which used the cave as a den. No reliable signs of utilization of canids by ancient people were detected.
Kirillova I.V., Spasskaya N.N.
The paper summarizes results of the archaeozoological and taphonomic studies of the osteological materials from floodplain settlement (complexes “Nastil 2”, “Fire 1”) and burial mounds of the medieval Gnezdovo. Mostly cranial remnants of the complex “Nastil 2” are characteristic of so-called “storages” sacrifice, which is recorded for this site for the first time. Animal bones of the “Fire 1” layer were heavily affected by the fire that changed bone tissues in various degrees depending on the temperature. Horse remains of the burial mounds Ts-255 also bear traces of a fire affect, which could be indirect (for example, through a thin soil layer). It changes previous idea of the way the inhumation by indicating cremation. Horse remains of the Gnezdovo show differences in the size class and proportion of skeletal elements. Gracile first phalanges of the horse of the Ts-191 burial indicate their belonging to a southern race. This feature is absent in other remains thus suggesting heterogeneity of the horse breed composition in the Gnezdovo. This is consistent both with the heterogeneity of ethnic composition and with the presence of imported artifacts in the burials. Specificity of the Gnezdovo burials with horses (a separate horse burials; a burial of a rider with his horse; a horse belonging to one owner) demonstrates a special relationship of the residents with riding horses.
Zorenko T.A., Golenishchev F.N.
Owing to distinct differences in size and shape in different taxa, spermatozoa can be of a high diagnostic value. The functional and evolutionary nature of such diversity is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to summarize the data on the differences in sperm design and linear parameters between the subgenera Sumeriomys and Microtus (the genus Microtus) and to carry out the same comparison between the “socialis” and “guentheri” groups of species within the subgenus Sumeriomys. We obtained the data on shape and size of spermatozoa in seven nominal forms of the subgenus Sumeriomys. The species of the subgenus Sumeriomys are quite similar in sperm design, which distinctly differs from that in the representatives of the subgenus Microtus. The spermatozoa of the Sumeriomys species also differ from those of the Microtus representatives in some linear measurements and quantitative indices. These data confirm the taxonomic distinctness of the social voles as an independent subgenus Sumeriomys. Within the subgenus Sumeriomys some essential differences were revealed in sperm dimensions. The largest spermatozoa are observed in the species of the “guentheri” group, especially in M. guentheri (a head length 7.60 mk). In M. hartingi they are slightly smaller in size (in two subspecies correspondingly 6.96 and 7.25 mk). In three nominal forms of the “socialis” group the spermatozoa are smaller (a head length 7.01–7.21 mk), than in the “guentheri” group. The ratio of head length to its width in M. guentheri and M. hartingi is respectively 1.5 and 1.46, while in the “socialis” group, 1.42–1.47. In voles of the subgenus Microtus it is 1.8–2.4. The length of the medium part of spermatozoon’s tail is the most variable character. The ratio of the sperm tail medium part length to head length in Microtus is higher than 2.8 (2.8–3.2), but in Sumeriomys it is lower than 2.8 (2.4–2.7).
Behaviors related to scent marking are compared and analyzed in males and females of four gerbil species (Meriones unguiculatus, M. tamariscinus, M. meridianus, and Psammomys obesus) observed in the wild and under semi-natural conditions. Scent-marking activity was found to vary in dependence on species, sex, age, reproductive conditions, social and territorial status of the individuals, and to show seasonal variation. The commonest patterns of scent marking are ventral rubbing and building up of ‘signal heaps’ with urine and feces. A close association between scent marking and social dominance was revealed in three species (M. unguiculatus, M. tamariscinus, M. meridianus). Spatial distribution of scent marks was found to be very uneven. Females marked most often the areas near burrow entrances, pathways and feeding sites. Males exhibited a higher rate of scent marking within home ranges of reproducing females. Inter-species differences in scent marking related to a species-specific space use systems and reproductive strategies were revealed. Results of the study partly support the scent-matching hypothesis and the status signaling hypothesis. However, these hypotheses do not predict spatial distribution of scent marks in male gerbils, and do not account for function of scent marking in young individuals as well as an increase of scent-marking activity induced by novelty factors. These findings are more consistent with the hypothesis of home range familiarization. Besides, scent marking in male gerbils could also function as a means of female monopolization.