Содержание: Том 8 (2) 2009 (отпечатан 9 August 2010)
Abramov A.V., Kruskop S.V., Shchinov A.V.
Field surveys within the Bi Doup – Nui Ba National Park located in north-east part of the Dalat Plateau (Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam), from 2002 to 2009, have allowed us to document the local presence of 36 species of small mammals. These include one tree shrew (Tupaiidae), one mole (Talpidae), three shrews (Soricidae), two roundleaf bats (Hipposideridae), two horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae), eight evening bats (Vespertilionidae), one bent-winged bat (Miniopteridae), six squirrels (Sciuridae), ten mice and rats (Muridae), one bamboo rat (Spalacidae) and one porcupine (Hystricidae). Thus, though because of climatic features the bat fauna is relatively deplete, the Dalat Plateau on the whole has one of the most diverse mammalian faunas in southern Vietnam.
Kudaro Paleolithic sites in the Southern Ossetia are found to contain five species of mustelids: Meles meles, Martes foina, Martes martes, Vormela peregusna, and Mustela nivalis. All these species occur in the Caucasus at present time; no difference was revealed in the species composition between faunas of Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fossil and recent populations demonstrate a considerable morphological similarity, except weasel represented by a distinct fossil subspecies M. nivalis kudarensis subsp.n.
Long-term dynamics of small mammals communities from dark coniferous forests of the East Sayan was studied for a period of 26 years. The study was conducted in the natural reserve «Stolby» and the adjacent areas. The analysis of the long-term dynamics has shown that various species population size fluctuations phases do not coincide. It results in the changes of structure of dominance with the leading position taken by northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus) and gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus). The duration of the population cycle varies in different species from two to four years. In general, the community is characterized by clear harmonic fluctuations with a four-year amplitude. Unidirectional irreversible changes in population in this community do not exist, that in general characterizes it as stable and sustainable. The leading impact on the population size in the studied group of species is caused by the total summer temperature and the rainfalls. These factors control fluctuations of the small mammals numbers in the range of 31–56%. In addition, the influence of seed productivity as well as predators’ (smaller mustelids) pressure should not be underestimated.
Baryshnikov G.F., Mol D., Tikhonov A.N.
The fossil bone remains of wolf (Canis lupus) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the permafrost of the Taimyr Peninsula have been examined. By the dimensions of the skull, the Late Pleistocene C. lupus resembles recent wolves of the Eurasian tundra, but exceeds them in the zygomatic width and length of the tooth row as well as possesses wider premolars. These peculiarities of the cranial and dental morphology suggest the Late Pleistocene wolves from north Siberia to consume more carrion than the recent wolves. Fossil remains of U. arctos were found far to north of the modern limits of brown bear distributional range in Taimyr. The robust size provides the possibility to presume that the Late Pleistocene brown bears ate a lot of animal proteins. The abundance of the representatives of the megafauna (mammoth, rhino, bison, musk-ox, etc.) in the arctic zone of Siberia as well as the absence of specialized mammal scavengers (hyenas) led the wolf and brown bears to be, most probably, among the main consumers of the large carcasses.
Gorbunova I.M., Tretyakov K.A.
Lesser white-toothed shrews were trapped in Saint Petersburg in 2000-2009. It is the most northern finding for this species.