Содержание: Том 16 (2) 2017 (отпечатан 27 December 2017)
Abramov A.V., Bannikova A.A., Chernetskaya D.M., Lebedev V.S., Rozhnov V.V.
The mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear ApoB and RAG2 genes were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships in Asiatic red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, Episoriculus). Based on molecular data, the genus Episoriculus seems to consist of at least seven valid species: E. baileyi, E. caudatus, E. leucops, E. macrurus, E. sacratus, E. soluensis, and E. umbrinus. Genetic distances among all of them are found to be of 8–16%, with the only low distance (3.4%) being that between E. baileyi and E. leucops. Taiwanese shrew E. fumidus shows high genetic divergence (16–17% for cytb) from other species of Episoriculus. Based on both genetic and morphological data it should be attributed to a separate new genus Pseudosoriculus gen.n. Episoriculus umbrinus was found in Lao Cai Province, representing a new species record for the fauna of Vietnam; morphology-based diagnosis of this specimen has reliably been confirmed by molecular data.
Kasiringua E., Kopij G., Procheş Ş.
In this study, daily drinking activity of all 12 herbivore species were conducted in the dry season at seven waterholes in the Waterberg National Park, Namibia, where only leopard Panthera pardus was present as a large carnivore. Drinking was more frequent between 15h00 and 22h00 than in the rest of the day. A conspicuous peak in drinking activity was in the evening between 18h00 and 19h00, when 15% of animals were recorded drinking water. Water holes had various frequency of attendance by particular ungulate species. Eland Tragelaphus oryx and buffalo Syncerus caffer were most frequently recorded species at water holes, comprising together almost half of all ungulates recorded. The kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, roan Hippotragus equinus, sable antelope Hippotragus niger and warthog Phacochoerus africanus were also in the group of water-dependent species (comprising together at water holes 41.2% of all animals recorded). Four groups of ungulates may be distinguished in the Waterberg National Park based on their daily drinking activity patterns: 1) evening and night drinkers: white rhino Ceratotherium simum, black rhino Diceros bicornis and buffalo (i.e., those free of leopard predation risk); 2) night and morning drinkers: eland, gemsbok Oryx gazella and kudu (i.e. those with limited leopard predation risk); 3) day drinkers: warthog, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis, roan, sable antelope, red hartebeest Alcephalus buselaphus (high leopard predation risk); 4) whole day and night drinkers: dik-dik Madoqua kirkii, steenbok Raphicerus campestris, common duiker Sylvicapra grimmia. Most animals drinking during the night were more active in the first half (18h00–24h00) than in the second half (24h00–6h00) of the night.
Kisagulov A.V., Kosintsev P.A., Gimranov D.O.
The study of the morphotypes of the crowns of the buccal teeth of three species of the genus Martes made it possible to trace the formation of modern ranges of pine marten M. martes, stone marten M. foina and sable M. zibellina during the second half of the Holocene. The pine marten range did not undergo any significant changes during the second half of the Holocene and included both Southern Urals and Trans-Urals. In the South Urals in the beginning and middle of the Late Holocene, the ranges of sable, stone marten and pine marten were overlapped. At the end of the late Holocene the sable range was shifted to the north, and the range of stone marten to the south-west, and in 18th century, only the pine marten inhabits the Southern Urals. In the second half of the Holocene until the 18th century, the Southern Trans-Urals were inhabited by only two species of the genus Martes — sable and pine marten, their ranges were sympatric. Modern boundaries of the ranges of sable, stone marten and pine marten in the Southern Urals and in the Southern Trans-Urals have been formed over the last 300 years.
Panova O.A., Serdyuk N.V., Glamazdin I.G., Zemlyanko I.I.
Contemporary American bison (Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758)) and European bison (Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758)) are introduced (alien) species at the territory of Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve. Presently, extensive interchange of parasitic fauna between the bisons and aboriginal ungulates is recorded, therefore, monitoring their helminth fauna appears to be a pressing issue. The current paper presents a survey of the helminth fauna in American bison and European bison based on the results of original research and literature data analysis. The investigation of faeces samples of American bisons from the nature reserve revealed eggs of Trichostrongylus sp. with length of 78.5 μm and width of 40 μm in size as well as those of Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856) with length of 60 and width of 20–22 μm in size. The eggs of Strongyloides papillosus in bisons from the nature reserve are recorded for the first time. It is supposed that the bisons contract this nematode species from sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck, 1838), yet previously it was believed that deer and bisons are safe for each other in terms of helminthic infections. The study has shown the heterogenous composition of helminth fauna in contemporary American bison and European bison in different parts of their range, which appears to be connected with the circulation of helminthes among deers and bisons populating a particular area. The absence of highly specific, high-avid helminthes in the bisons has been found.
Petrova E.A., Masutin V.V., Zhuykova I.A.
This paper presents a description of two unknown incomplete woolly mammoth skeletons discovered in the Kirov Region of the European part of Russia. The first skeleton was found on the Vetluga River, near to the Village of Chernovskoe. The second one was discovered on the Chernyanka River, near to the Village of Shaleevshchina. The Vetluga mammoth showed replacement of the lower molars — m2 by m3, and some unfused epiphyses of the bones. Based on qualitative and metric morphological data this skeleton was determined as belonging to an adult male, which probably died at the age of 35–43 years. Its mandible and dentition have a typical morphology, similar to Mammuthus primigenius. The Chernyanka mammoth was a female of estimated age 50–60 years at death. Compared to other European and Siberian skeletons, the Vetluga and Chernyanka mammoths have a body size similar to Mammuthus primigenius, and lived in the late Pleistocene.
The current paper represents a summary of age determination attempts in two species of East-Asian hedgehogs — Erinaceus amurensis Schrenk, 1859, and Mesechinus dauuricus (Sundevall, 1842) from Russian (Moscow, Saint Petersburg) and Chinese (Beijing) Museum Collections. The analysed specimens comprise 99 skulls, of which 46 skulls are from Amur hedgehogs, and 53 belonged to Daurian hedgehogs. Our results represent the four relative age stages with detailed descriptions and figures from the viewpoint of an interspecies comparison. We revealed that the size and additive characters of suprameatal fossa are undoubtedly very useful for the identification of adult specimens of both species, but are useless for young specimens due to the similarity of the initial stages of development of the ear region. In addition, the relative height of the frontal and parietal bones (= development of the sagittal ridge and temporal line) cannot be used to correctly compare subadult and adult Amur hedgehogs with adult and senile Daurian hedgehogs, because the latter species acquires a similarity in the skull profile with the former during maturity. The third considered age-related character is fusion of the lacrimal/maxilla suture, which shows some degree of variation in E. amurensis. Thus, all of the characteristics that are generally used for the comparison and identification of East-Asian hedgehogs, beginning with E. amurensis vs. M. dauuricus, require a prior description of their interspecific variability in order to be useful for species identification.
Stepanova V.V., Argunov A.V., Kirillin R.A., Okhlopkov I.M.
Geophagia of wild hoofed mammals was recorded using camera-traps in five mineral licks of the Central Yakutia (Russia). In total, 235 camera-trap-days are spent, breakdown by months: June — 34, July — 60, August — 65, September — 60, October — 16. Over this period, we registered 122 visits of moose. Presence of 215 moose on the mineral licks is documented, among them — 24 visits of females with calves. The average geophagia of moose (M±SD) is 8.7±7.8 min (lim 1–40; n=125). The average number of visits per day is 3.1 (lim 1–8; n=54). The maximum number of moose staying on a mineral lick at the same time amounted to 4 animals. The maximum number of moose visited a licks per day amounted to 6 animals (apart from repeated visits). Monthly visiting of licks is as follows: June — 43.3%, July — 49.2%, August — 5.8%, September — 1.7%, and October — 0%. The sex ratio of using the salt mineral licks was as follows: bulls 47.6% (n=10), cows — 52.4% (n=11).