Содержание: Том 14 (2) 2015 (отпечатан 22 December 2015)
By the example of genus Myotis it was shown that venation pattern on uropatagium of bats in some cases can be used as diagnostic character. Venation features on uropatagium allow easy to separate Daubenton’s bat, eastern water bat, big-footed bat, and pond bat from Brandt’s bat, Siberian bat, whiskered bat, and Ikonnikov’s bat.
Klementiev A.M., Sizov A.V.
New material on anchithere is described from Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Tagay locality, Olkhon Island, Lake Baikal). Based on the structure of teeth and postcranial bones, the Baikalian record is referred to the widespread Eurasian species Anchitherium aurelianense. This form shows low crowned lophodont type teeth without cement. Metaloph is mostly connected with ectoloph, protoloph does not connect with ectoloph; secondary structures of the anterior wall of metaloph (crochet) are not developed or incipient. The Early Miocene age of the Siberian anchithere is inferred from the archaic skeletal morphology and comparison with European and Asian records.
I examined 14 craniometric features of 128 specimens of Ochotona mantchurica from the entire distribution range. A craniometric analysis revealed at least three major groups with detached geographical distribution. The race of O. mantchurica from the southern part of the Lesser Khinggan Range has the same level of morphological peculiarity as two other subspecies: O. m. scorodumovi from the Russian Transbaikalia and O. m. mantchurica from the Greater Khinggan Range, together with the northern part of the Lesser Khinggan Range. The distribution area of this race is separated from the rest of the species distribution range by a wide band of lowly suitable habitats. No nominal taxa were described from the southern part of the Lesser Khinggan Range, and the race in question was described here as a new subspecies: O. m. loukashkini ssp. nov.
We examined geographic variation in the shape of lower and upper rows of cheek teeth and variation in their morphological integration in Arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus (L., 1758). We found similarity in the structure of the variation in shape and morphological integration. Mednyi Island Arctic foxes (V. lagopus semenovi Ognev, 1931) were distinct from the other Arctic fox populations studied in terms of both the shape of cheek tooth rows and correlation of structure. Bering Island Arctic foxes (V. lagopus beringensis Merriam, 1902), which are genetically similar to Mednyi Island foxes, were closer to mainland Arctic foxes with respect to the shape of cheek tooth rows and modular structure. Elongation of the edges of both lower and upper carnassials, molar enlargement, and coordinated rotation of premolars lingually were observed in Mednyi Island Arctic foxes when compared with mainland Arctic foxes. The modularity of lower and upper cheek tooth rows was studied. Two modules were found in both lower and upper tooth rows. Lower tooth rows comprised premolar and molar modules. In upper tooth rows, molars with the fourth premolar (the carnassial) and small premolars formed two distinct modules. Masking of developmental integration by functional integration was shown for upper tooth rows of Arctic foxes.
Nesterenko V.A., Katin I.O.
The terrestrial grouping of the spotted seal Phoca largha (Carnivora, Phocidae) in Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) is one of the smallest (approximately 2,500 individuals) breeding concentration of this species, that is characterized by coastal reproduction. In 2009, 170 seals were hot branded on the islands of the Rimsky-Korsakov Archipelago where all the haulout sites, in which the reproductive ashore associations of spotted seal form and function, are concentrated. Movements of marked animals were monitored year-round between 2009 and 2012, and the spatial distribution of immature seals was studied. Within the breeding area, the use of space by immature seals older than one year was based on the mechanism of “social panmixia” and turned out to be fundamentally different from territory use by underyearlings.
Obolenskaya E.V., Lissovsky A.A.
Zoogeographical studies of regional scale always deal with incompleteness of faunal information. Such information is usually available as a set of localities, covering the studied area as an irregular network. At the same time, full coverage of data is needed for any spatial analysis. In this study, we attempted to perform faunal zoning at a regional level, formalising the procedure to the greatest extent possible. We used 47 small mammal species distribution models (SDM) as initial data for faunal zoning. SDMs were previously constructed based on localities determined using museum labels and environmental data with the maximum entropy method. SDMs were converted to binary values using fixed threshold. We calculated 1-Jaccard similarity coefficients between unique sets of predicted species compositions in each raster cell. The resulting dissimilarity matrix was analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis with the Ward and unweighted average methods. We distinguished three large clusters with nine subclusters based the similarity of the fauna composition. Patterns of the spatial distribution of species numbers and species composition homogeneity were obtained. The relationships between the distribution of species richness and the spatial heterogeneity of the fauna with latitude, longitude, altitude and environmental factors were studied using regression and discriminant analysis. Finally, two faunas were found in South-Eastern Transbaikalia, and a large territory in this region is occupied by a zone of their interpenetration. Analysis of stacked SDMs proposed as important tool for investigation of regional zoogeographical heterogeneity. It is especially useful for extrapolation of faunal data to a larger unstudied territory.
Plasteeva N.A., Vasiliev S.K., Kosintsev P.A.
Small equid remains are frequent in the Late Pleistocene deposits in the southern part of Western Siberia. Re-examination of fossil material previously attributed to E. hydruntinus or E. hemionus revealed its attribution to E. ovodovi. Morphologically it is characterized by slender third metapodials, short protocone on the upper teeth, V-shaped lingual valley, and occurrence of isolated stylids on the lower teeth. In Late Pleistocene E. ovodovi was widespread in the southern part of Western Siberia. Its remains are reported from Priobskoye Plateau, Altai, and Kuznetsk Alatau. To the east the range reached at least the Yenisei River. Radiocarbon dates suggest E. ovodovi inhabited the area until the end of the Kargin interstadial (MIS 3).
Solovyev B.A., Shpak O.V., Glazov D.M., Rozhnov V.V., Kuznetsova D.M.
The summer distribution of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Sea of Okhotsk is typical for boreal and subarctic seas that are seasonally ice covered and support numerous anadromous fish species. During summer in the Sea of Okhotsk, beluga whales aggregate where rivers flow into estuaries, gulfs, and bays. Beluga whales are currently found in Sakhalinskiy Bay (in an estuary of the Amur River), the Shantar region, in portions of Shelikhov Bay, and along the northwestern coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Changes in beluga whale distribution have occurred when compared to results of earlier studies. In particular, summer aggregations have increased in the Shantar region and along the northwestern coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula.