Содержание: Том 12 (1) 2013 (отпечатан 5 June 2013)
Evteev A.A., Nanova O.G.
Could studying of a single bone’s morphological variation and growth provide some additional information? For addressing this question a configuration of 13 landmarks from the middle part of the upper facial skeleton was digitized by Microscribe 3D digitizer on 25 skulls of Cercocebus torquatus and 16 skulls of Procolobus verus of different age and sex. Our results suggest that despite of strong ontogenetic integration in postnatal growth of the primate facial skeleton a study on a single bone’s growth could provide a lot of biologically meaningful information. Elongation of the snout is far more pronounced in C. torquatus and related specifically to growth of the maxilla. This process can be described by a linear growth model and seems to be closely related to the general somatic growth rather than be by itself adaptive since an elongated snout could decrease bite force generation capacity at the incisors. Premaxillary growth is to a substantial degree independent from maxillary growth. The lower part of the bone attains its species-specific shape early in ontogeny what can be considered as a preparation to strong masticatory loadings which begin in this species during the first year of life. Later growth processes of the two bones are closely related and as a result shape of the premaxilla is substantially modified. Proximal and distal parts of the nasal bones seem to show differences: the former could be apparently different among individuals of the same species while shape and size of the later much more reflect elongation of the maxilla during postnatal period.
Voyta L.L., Golenishchev F.N., Tiunov M.P.
The variation of quantitative characters of the first lower molar was analysed in nine species of Far-Eastern voles Alexandromys from Russian fauna. Canonical variation analysis revealed that main differences were associated with “oeconomus-like” fusion, and clearly differentiates A. oeconomus, A. mongolicus and A. gromovi from other species. The results of UPGMA cluster analysis based on the average Procrustes distances did not agree with recent molecular studies. Discriminant analysis of Procrustes coordinates of 19 landmarks showed that the percentage of correct species classifications of samples vary from 50% to 100%. Linear measurements together with shape features can be used for identification of the following species: A. oeconomus, A. mongolicus, and A.sachalinensis. Shape of enamel loops of the first lower molar of Far-Eastern grey voles can be used for species identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis.
Solov’ev V.A., Sergeyev A.A., Zhiryakov A.S., Rukavishnikova T.L.
It is offered a simple and effective method of osteological samples preparation of mammals and birds which does not need significant economical expenses and useful for mass analyses of biological samples. The laboratory way of vertebrate skeletons preparation offered can be used in scientific research work, museums, hunting trophies preparation as well as in veterinary and sanitary works, criminalistics, judicial and custom practices.
van der Made J., Morales J.
A critical response to the small article by Sen (2010) discussing the validity of a report of camelids from the Late Miocene locality Cobanpinar, Turkey.
The Ladoga ringed seal is a Red listed subspecies of ringed seal, which most critical life cycle stages are closely related to ice presence on the lake. Climatic changes which are observed globally have their impact on local marine mammal populations resulting in shifts in distribution, abundance, migration pattern, disease occurrence, reproductive success. We considered trends in various ice related parameters on the Lake Ladoga since mid-XX century in relation to possible consequences to the Ladoga seal population. Analysis of the probability of winter with 100% ice coverage of the lake showed a statistically significant negative trend. Similarly, negative, though rather weak, trends were observed for sum of negative temperatures in the region and average ice thickness. The total duration of the ice period on the lake has reduced by 13.7% during the second part of the XX century. Maintenance of such trends, though non-significant on short term scale, can cause stress reactions in the Ladoga ringed seal living at the very southern edge of the species global range.